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At Key Stage 2, learners build on the skills, knowledge and understanding they have already acquired during the Foundation Phase. They continue to develop positive attitudes towards mathematics and extend their mathematical thinking by solving mathematical problems, communicating and reasoning mathematically using contexts from across the whole range of mathematics, across the curriculum and as applied to real-life problems.


They extend their use of the number system, moving from counting reliably to calculating fluently with all four number operations, including in the context of money, in order to solve numerical problems. They try to tackle a problem with a mental method before using any other approach and use written methods of calculation appropriate to their level of understanding.  They develop estimation strategies and apply these to check calculations, both written and by calculator. They explore a wide variety of shapes and their properties and, in the context of measures, use a range of units and practical equipment with increasing accuracy. They collect, represent and interpret data for a variety of purposes. They select, discuss, explain and present their methods and reasoning using an increasing range of mathematical language, diagrams and charts.